What is proteomics?



Proteomics is a science that studies the composition of proteins in cells, tissues or organisms and their changing laws. This concept was first proposed in 1994 by Marc Wilkins as a new term.

The word proteome comes from the combination of the words protein and genome, which means “a complete set of proteins expressed by a genome”, that is, including the proteins expressed by a cell and even an organism. total protein. Proteomics essentially refers to the study of protein characteristics at a large-scale level, including protein expression levels, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, etc., thereby obtaining information on disease occurrence, cell metabolism, etc. at the protein level. A holistic and comprehensive understanding of the process.

The study of proteome can not only provide the material basis for the laws of life activities, but also provide theoretical basis and solutions for the elucidation and overcoming of various disease mechanisms. Through the comparative analysis of the proteome between normal individuals and pathological individuals, we can find some “disease-specific protein molecules”, which can become molecular targets for new drug design, or provide molecular markers for early diagnosis of diseases . Indeed, some of the best-selling drugs in the world are themselves proteins or target certain protein molecules. Therefore, proteomic research is not only a necessary work to explore the mysteries of life, but also brings huge benefits to the cause of human health. The study of proteomics is the characteristic of life science entering the post-gene era.

Basic strategy
The concept of proteome was first proposed by Marc Wilkins, which refers to all proteins expressed by a genome, or a cell or tissue. There are many differences between the concept of proteome and the concept of genome. Different tissues and even environmental states. During transcription, a gene can be spliced ​​in multiple mRNA forms, and the same protein may undergo post-translational modifications in many forms. Therefore, a proteome is not a direct product of a genome, a proteome The number of proteins in a protein can sometimes exceed the number of genomes. Proteomics is in an early “developmental” state, and experts in the field deny that it is purely methodological, like genomics, not a closed, conceptually stable It is a body of knowledge, but a field. Proteomics focuses on the dynamic description of gene regulation, the quantitative determination of protein levels of gene expression, the identification of the effects of diseases and drugs on life processes, and the interpretation of the mechanisms of gene expression regulation. In the field of science, proteome research does not start from scratch, it is an extension of the technology of protein (peptide) mapping and gene product mapping with a history of more than 20 years. Peptide mapping relies on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 2-DE) And further image analysis; while gene product maps rely on a variety of post-separation analysis, such as mass spectrometry, amino acid composition analysis, etc.

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Proteomics services cover protein identification, quantification, protein sequencing, post translational modification analysis, biomarker discovery and validation, and customized protein complex characterizations.